Paper 11 – (C) ; Ecosystem Ecology


Ecosystem Ecology

Unit 1 

Grassland Ecosystem – Characteristics of grasslands, stratification of Grasslands and grazing, grasslands and drought, Grasslands and animal life, grasslands types with special reference to Prairie and Savannah, indian grasslands

Forest ecosystem; Stratification of the forest, forest types; boreal, temperate, and Tropical forests, Forest animal life.

Unit 2

Freshwater ecosystem: classification of freshwater Habitats, Lentic; Lakes & Ponds; Temperature and oxygen stratification zonation based on light penetration, Flora and fauna, Productivity classes of lakes, Marshes and Swamps,Bogs, 

Lotic; Springs, Streams and Rivers.

Marine and Estuarine Ecosystems: Characteristics of marine Marine Environment: Salinity, Temperature and Pressure; Zonation and Stratification, Tides, Estuarine ecosystems: Types of Estuaries, Flora and fauna, Estuarine productivity, coral reef ecosystems, Mangrove ecosystems

Unit 3

Urban Ecosystem Urban environment and climatic conditions, additional physical complexes (modified surfaces including parking lots, roofs, and landscaping, buildings, transportation networks, infrastructure and public amenities) flora and fauna (human beings as largest macro consumer) Implications of urbanization; problems of air pollutants, drinking water supply, floods, waste disposal.

Rural Ecosystems; Rural environment and climate, physical complexes (fields, agricultural implements and machines) Flora and fauna, Problems of discharge of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and drinking water, Management of waste, principle; Social forestry.

Unit 4

Desert Ecosystem; Desert: Definition, classification (bot and cold) Physiography, desert features, flora fauna and water, formation, topography, distribution and characteristics of world deserts, 

Thar desert; sand dunes; types origin and morphology of sand dunes, vegetation types and plant communities, biological production, conservation of flora and fauna wildlife, Succession in vegetation of western Rajasthan and coastal sand dunes,  economic importance of desert plants (general economic plants, medicinal famine food plants and crops); Saline Arid zones, Saline tracts of Rajasthan and plant of saline arid zones (Halophytes); Economic and social considerations in the management of salt affected soils, afforestation in salt affected soils, Importance of halophytes.

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