Cell biology Molecular Biology and Genetics
Ultrastructure of Cell and Cell Organelles: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cell structure; Ultrastructure and functions of different cell organelles (Cell wall, Plasma membrane, Nucleus, Mitochondria, Chloroplast, Ribosome, Peroxisomes, Lysosome, Golgi bodies and Endoplasmic Reticulum); Basic idea of Mitochondrial and Chloroplast genome. 15 hrs
Chromosome organization:Chromosome Morphology, Specialized types of chromosomes: Polytene chromosomes. Cell Division: Cell cycle; Mitosis and Meiosis, Chromosomal aberrations in human and ploidy in plants: Deletion, Duplication, Translocation, Inversion, Aneuploidy and Polyploidy.Mutations: Spontaneous and induced Mutations, Physical and Chemical mutagens. 15 hrs
Gene and DNA: Concept of Genome, Gene. Genetic material: DNA as genetic material (Griffith’s transformation experiment); structure of DNA (Watson and Crick Model); Structure and function of different types of RNA ( rRNA, m RNA, tRNA).
DNA replication: Mechanisms of Eukaryotes DNA replication: Initiation, Elongation and Termination; Leading and lagging strands, Okazaki fragments.
Transcription: initiation, elongation and termination. Translation: initiation, elongation and termination in Eukaryotes Genetic code 15 hrs.
Genetic inheritance: Mendel’s laws of inheritance and their exceptions; allelic (incomplete dominance, co-dominance, lethality) and non-allelic interactions (complementary genes, epistasis and duplicate genes);
Multiple allelism (ABO blood groups in men); Quantitative inheritance (Grain color in wheat).
Cytoplasmic inheritance: Plastid inheritance (different types of leaves in Mirabilis jalapa); Mitochondrial inheritance (Cytoplasmic male sterility in plants). 15 hrs