BSc Part 1 Botany – Cell Biology, Genetics and Plant Breeding:

Section A: Multiple Choice Questions

Q.1What is the function of lysosomes in a eukaryotic cell?

a. To produce energy for the cell

b. To store genetic material

c. To break down cellular waste and debris

d. To transport proteins and lipids

2.Which of the following is a basic unit of heredity in living organisms?

a. RNA

b. DNA

c. ATP

d. Protein

3.What is the term used to describe a change in the DNA sequence that affects the genetic information of an organism?

a. Mutation

b. Translation

c. Replication

d. Transcription

4 What is the process by which the genetic information in DNA is copied to RNA?

a. Replication

b. Translation

c. Transcription

d. Mitosis

5.Which of the following is not a method of plant breeding?

a. Hybridization

b. Mutation breeding

c. Genetic engineering

d. Photosynthesis

Section B: Short Answer Questions

  1. What is the role of mitochondria in a eukaryotic cell?
  2. Define chromatin and explain its relationship with chromosomes.
  3. What is meiosis and how does it contribute to genetic diversity?
  4. Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype.
  5. What are the different types of mutations and how do they arise?

Section C: Long Answer Questions

  1. Describe the structure and function of a eukaryotic cell.
  2. Explain the process of DNA replication and its significance.
  3. Discuss the principles of Mendelian genetics.
  4. Describe the different methods of plant breeding and their significance.
  5. Discuss the ethical issues surrounding genetic engineering and its applications.

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