BSc Part 1 Botany – Cell Biology, Genetics and Plant Breeding:

Section A: Multiple Choice Questions

Which of the following is not a characteristic of eukaryotic cells?

a. Presence of a well-defined nucleus

b. Presence of membrane-bound organelles

c. Presence of ribosomes

d. Absence of a plasma membrane

What is the function of RNA polymerase in transcription?

a. To unwind the DNA double helix

b. To synthesize RNA from DNA template

c. To package the RNA into a mature mRNA molecule

d. To transport the mRNA to the ribosome

Which of the following is not a Mendelian trait?

a. Eye color in humans

b. Seed color in peas

c. Flower color in snapdragons

d. Leaf shape in corn

What is the function of a restriction enzyme in genetic engineering?

a. To cut the DNA at specific sites

b. To repair damaged DNA

c. To make copies of DNA

d. To insert DNA into a host organism

Which of the following is not a method of DNA sequencing?

a. Sanger sequencing

b. Pyrosequencing

c. Next-generation sequencing

d. Gene editing

Section B: Short Answer Questions

  1. Explain the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
  2. Define the term allele and explain how it relates to genetic variation.
  3. What is a plasmid and how is it used in genetic engineering?
  4. Explain the process of meiosis and how it differs from mitosis.
  5. What is hybrid vigor and how does it contribute to plant breeding?

Section C: Long Answer Questions

  1. Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane.
  2. Explain the process of translation and its significance.
  3. Discuss the principles of population genetics and their applications in plant breeding.
  4. Explain the CRISPR/Cas9 system and its potential applications in gene editing.
  5. Discuss the impact of genetic engineering on agriculture and the environment.
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