Biological Role of DNA

Biological Role of DNA

1.synthesis of Protein –

  • Transcription – The process in which the information present on a DNA molecule is written by a base sequence to its complementary sequence to mRNA.
  • Translation – In this, the information located on the mRNA is translated as a chain of amino acids to form a protein.

2. DNA Replication –

  • DNA Replication is the process in which two identical (Identical) copies are obtained from the original DNA.
  • It is a biological process that takes place in all living beings and forms the basis of biological inheritance.

Rate – 1000 nucleotide /sec

3. DNA Inheritance

  • DNA packs all the genetic information, and these are transferred from one generation to the next.
  • Genes are made from DNA and chromosomes are made from genes. And this genetic information is transferred from one generation to another by chromosomes.

4. Mutation

  • Abnormality comes in DNA due to change in base sequence of DNA.
  • This abnormality becomes permanent in the gene and is passed on to the next generation, causing variations in the organisms.
  • It can be produced artificially or naturally.

5. Genetic Code

  • Genetic code is a 3-letter base sequence of nucleotide codons that codes for 20 types of amino acids and each triplet code has an amino acid code.

6. DNA Binding Protein

  • It is a specific group of proteins bound to ssDNA.
  • It protects DNA from forming intramolecular loops and breaks by nuclease and forms various types of structures.
  • It helps in the expression of genes.

7. Genetic Recombination

  • The exchange of genes takes place by crossing over the genes of two chromatids.
  • In this, part of one chromatid connects with second chromatid and part of second chromatid with first chromatid.
  • Genes are exchanged by this process, genetic variations arise in the daughter cell.

8. DNA Helicity

  • The nucleotides in DNA are bound at a specific angle, due to which it is not linear but slightly bent along the length, and exhibits helicity.

9. DNA Looping –

  • Protein is complexly bound to DNA, causing thousands (~10,000) of bases of DNA to come out as loops.
  • This loop regulates many biochemical reactions.

Ex. – Lampbrush Chromosome

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

error: Content is protected !!